How to deal with fine dust and ozone

There isn't much fine dust today!" Since some time the word fine dust has appeared in the greeting.

The weather forecast began to tell the concentration of fine dust today.

Yellow dust that hit Korea every spring seems to have been replaced by fine dust.

Recently, the ozone story sounds boring.

What is the difference between yellow dust, fine dust, and ozone?

- Fine dust and ozone

Yellow dust in deserts and yellow soil areas of China, Mongolia is a natural phenomenon in which air currents move, while fine dust and ozone are air pollution where pollutants from urban and industrial areas float.

The types of fine dust include smoke, car exhaust, flying dust at construction sites, and can also occur when cooking food, and pollutants from the source in a gaseous state react chemically with other substances in the air.

Depending on the size of the particles, dust is divided into total dust of less than 50μg and very small particulate matter (PM), which is divided into fine dust with a diameter of less than 10μg and ultrafine dust with a diameter of 2.5μg.

When light is scattered in several directions or absorbed by fine dust, the visibility distance decreases, so the concentration and visibility of fine dust are inversely proportional.

Ozone is a secondary pollutant produced by photochemical reactions such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons from automobiles and factories.

If the ozone concentration in the atmosphere exceeds 0.12 ppm on average per hour, an ozone warning will be issued if it exceeds 0.3 ppm on average per hour, and a critical warning will be issued if it exceeds 0.5 ppm. In 2013, the International Cancer Research Institute under the World Health Organization designated fine dust as a first-tier carcinogen. Most of the dust is filtered out of the nasal hair or bronchial mucosa, but fine dust is very small particles, so it is not filtered out of the nose, mouth, or bronchial tubes, but permeates into our bodies.

If the concentration and ingredient of fine dust are the same, the smaller the particle size, the more harmful it is to health.

Once fine dust enters our body, immune cells can cause inflammatory reactions to remove dust, causing allergic conjunctivitis, corneal inflammation, rhinitis, bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.

As fine dust builds up in the bronchial tubes, sputum and cough become more frequent, and as the bronchial mucous membrane dries, germs can easily penetrate, increasing the incidence of infectious diseases such as pneumonia. According to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every 10 질병/ 증가할 increase in PM10 concentration increases by 2.7 percent and the death rate by 1.1 percent. In particular, the elderly, infants, pregnant women, or people with chronic lung disease or heart disease can be more affected by fine dust than the general public. Repeated exposure to ozone can also cause eye and nose mucous membrane irritation, coughing, headaches, and breathing difficulties, and in severe cases, bronchitis and asthma can worsen, so special attention is needed.

Avoid outdoor activities at dawn, early in the morning and mid-day.

Early in the morning, outdoor exercise should be avoided and scarves could not block fine dust at all.

- The higher the altitude, the colder the air becomes.

Hot air moves upward and cold air moves downward, but in basins, valleys, winters, and dawn with large daily temperature differences, the temperature of the ground is drastically lowered, causing heavy air to stagnate on the ground, leaving air pollutants such as fine dust on the ground.

Therefore, early in the morning is the time when fine dust should be most careful, and especially on high humidity days, air pollutants absorb moisture and generate secondary fine dust, so caution is needed.

Ozone, on the other hand, occurs a lot during the day when sunlight is strong because air pollutants react with sunlight and are secondary.

Respiratory patients should be careful not to be exposed to fine dust or ozone for a long time. In particular, it is recommended to refrain from outdoor activities on days when fine dust is above "bad" or when ozone warnings are issued, and it is recommended to avoid early morning, early morning, and mid-day activities as much as possible even if exercising.

Health masks certified by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety said they have a significant effect in filtering out yellow dust and fine dust.

The number displayed on the product represents the particle blocking performance of the product, so the larger the number, the better the blocking performance.

Masks should be worn closely to the face, so masks should be selected according to the size and shape of the individual's face and worn correctly.

After going out, patients with chronic obstructive lung disease or asthma must carry treatments such as quick-acting bronchial extensions if they have to go out.