Diabetes Causes, Symptoms and Management

 It's diabetes that people who pee a lot, drink a lot, or eat a lot of food a lot. Diabetes occurs due to the lack of insulin secretion in the pancreas or the lack of insulin action in muscles and fat cells that require insulin action.

  Diabetes causes high blood pressure, angina, severe atherosclerosis, and diabetic retinopathy. Find out about diabetes.


- Symptoms

  a disease characterized by high blood sugar Blood sugar means glucose in the blood.

  Carbohydrates (sugar) in food are digested in the stomach and broken down into glucose and absorbed into the blood vessels.

  Glucose in the blood is transported to cells all over the body and used or stored as an energy source. This process requires the action of insulin, a hormone secreted from beta cells in the pancreas.

  Diabetes occurs due to the lack of insulin secretion in the pancreas or the lack of insulin action in muscles and fat cells that require insulin action.

  As a result, glucose in the blood cannot be used in cells and accumulates in the blood, increasing blood sugar and overflowing with urine.

  The typical symptom is polygneo, next, polygneo. In other words, if blood sugar increases, urine increases and as a result, thirst increases, so you drink a lot of water. Also, they eat a lot because they feel hungry, but lose weight. These symptoms usually get worse with higher blood sugar levels. In addition, chronic complications of gum, skin, vaginal infections, and diabetes can occur.

  @classification There are two main types, Type 1 and Type 2, and the causes of occurrence are different.

  ◇Type 1 (insulin dependent) ◇ The beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by autoimmune mechanism or virus infection, and insulin is rarely released. Insulin must be replenished. It is also known as pediatric type diabetes, which usually occurs in children and adolescents.

  ◇Type 2 (insulin non-dependent)= The pancreas's insulin secretion function is normal, but the body's insulin needs have increased and its action has decreased due to obesity and other reasons.

  The most common form is adult diabetes, which usually occurs after middle age. The characteristic of type 2 diabetes is that it develops slowly and often occurs in obese people, and insulin injection is not necessary.

  It is often treatable with dietary therapy or the combination of oral blood sugar drops.


- Cause

  ◇ Genetic factors = There are many diabetics in the family of diabetics. In the case of identical twins, if one is diabetic, the other is more than 90 percent likely to develop diabetes.

  In addition, both parents have a strong genetic tendency as 30% to 75% of their children and 15% to 25% of their parents develop diabetes if they have type 2 diabetes.

  ◇ Environmental factors = Not all people with genetic constitution become diabetic and occur when various environmental factors act. Environmental factors that affect the development of diabetes include obesity, aging, pregnancy, infection, surgery, stress, and drug abuse.

- management

  Diabetes is not a disease that can be cured, but must be managed consistently through continuous efforts. The most important goal in managing diabetes is to prevent complications.

  The most important thing is to keep blood sugar close to normal, blood pressure, blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), and normal weight (standard weight).

  Control of diabetes consists of diet, exercise, drug therapy (oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin injections), regular examinations, and diabetes education.


◇ Diet = It is not good to eat less or fast. Also, it is wrong to think that you can only avoid sweet foods or that you are dieting while eating only barley rice. What is the right diet


① Eat a set amount to fit your total daily caloric intake in consideration of your height and weight, gender, age, and activity level.


② Distribute an appropriate amount at a regular time.


③ Eat all nutrients evenly.


◇Exercise therapy = Even people without disease, moderate exercise is very important for maintaining their health, and the importance of diabetic patients is undisputed.

  The effects obtained during exercise are △Reduces blood sugar and lipid levels, △Helps to lose weight and maintain a normal weight, △Prevents cardiovascular complications such as arteriosclerosis, △Reduces the dose of insulin or blood sugar-lowering drugs, It strengthens the musculoskeletal system and gives mental stability to vitalize life.

  Before starting exercise, be sure to check the exercise and select the appropriate exercise to avoid dangerous situations that may occur during exercise (induction or exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmias, angina, exacerbation of chronic complications such as diabetic retinopathy, high blood pressure, etc.). do.

  If there are no contraindications for the type of exercise, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise that can be continued for more than 30 minutes is appropriate according to the patient's preference. For example, although there is a difference in degree, choose an exercise that is easy to do in daily life, such as brisk walking, stationary bicycle riding, or light running, and avoid exercises that generate rapid strength in one sitting.

  When exercising, to prevent musculoskeletal damage, warm up with stretching and low-intensity aerobic exercise for 5-10 minutes, and then continue exercising for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity to achieve 60-75% of your maximum heart rate.

  You can calculate your maximum heart rate as approximately (220-age). When you finish exercising, do light exercise for 5-10 minutes.

  For blood sugar control and cardiovascular training, you should exercise at least 3 days a week, and for weight control, you should exercise at least 5 days a week along with diet.


◇Drug therapy= If diabetes is not well controlled with proper diet and exercise therapy, use drug therapy. Drug therapy can be divided into oral hypoglycemic agents and injections (insulin).


Type 2 diabetes is mostly controlled with diet, exercise, and oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin injection is required in about 30% of cases. The most commonly used blood sugar lowering agent is sulfonylurea. This drug reduces blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin.


In addition, biguanide and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors do not promote insulin secretion, but reduce blood sugar levels by helping insulin or inhibiting carbohydrate absorption.


Recently, drugs of the glitazone class, which are enhancers of insulin action, have been newly used. These drugs have different mechanisms of action, methods of use, side effects, etc. It can be used alone, as a combination therapy with each other, or as a combination therapy with insulin.


Those who need insulin use are △Type 1 diabetes and malnutrition type diabetes △Acute complications of diabetes △Pregnant diabetes patients △Patients with acute diseases such as surgery or infection △Diet, exercise therapy, oral blood sugar Patients who are not effective with laxatives, etc.


Insulin has various formulations depending on the concentration, purity, and duration of action, and the selection criteria for each patient are different.